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Imitha yebanga iyithuluzi elikhethekile lokulinganisa ibanga, elinikela ekufinyezeni nasekukhuliseni ukunemba komsebenzi wokulinganisa. Ngakho yiziphi izinhlobo zamamitha webanga afakiwe?

kuqalaLinganisa ibanga ngomshini we-laser

Uyini umshini we-laser?

Imitha yebanga le-laser, eyaziwa nangokuthi imitha ye-laser ngamafuphi, ukulinganisa kwe-laser umshini okhethekile wokwenza isilinganiso sobude bomhlaba wonke, isilinganiso sebangaisebenza ngokusekelwe laser reflection isimiso.

Esimeni esikhethwe ngumsebenzisi njengophawu lokuqala, ngemuva kokucindezela inkinobho yokulinganisa, ijeneretha yesiginali ye-electronic rangefinder izokhipha i-laser, kala ibanga ukusuka kulolu phawu lomhlaba olukhethiwe ukuya endaweni lapho i-laser ihlangabezana nesithiyo. Bese umamukeli bese uveza imiphumela esikrinini futhi njengamapharamitha amayunithi amamitha (m), izinyawo (ft), amayadi (yd), … kuye ngezilungiselelo zomsebenzisi.

  Umshini we-Laser ungumshini okhethekile wokulinganisa ubude, ibanga lokulinganisa

Izinhlobo ezidumile zemishini

Okuvame ukusetshenziswa laser rangefinder kukhona umshini ophathwayo okahle noma omkhulu wokulinganisa ibanga elide. Kuye ngomkhiqizo onophawu oluhlukile kanye nesakhiwo, intengo nayo ihlukile, ifanele ukusetshenziswa komsebenzisi ngamunye nezimo zokuthenga.

Njengamanje, kungashiwo uhlobo lwekhwalithi ye-laser rangefinder Bosch, Topcon, Leica,… Imikhiqizo yonke inemishini yayo yokuklama ukusiza abasebenzisi ukwenza imisebenzi ehlukene kalula.

I-laser rangefinder esetshenziswa kakhulu iphathwa ngesandla noma i- rangefinders yebanga elide

isici esiyinhloko

Imitha yebanga le-laser enosayizi ohlangene, elula ukuyiphatha inezici ezinjengalezi:

  • Isilinganiso esiqondile sobude, ibanga elivamilengaphandle kwalokho kungenza neminye imisebenzi eminingi njengale: ukubala indawo, ukubala ivolumu, ukuqongelela amanani akaliwe, ukususa amanani akaliwe, ukulinganisa i-Pythagoras, ukulinganisa amabanga aqhubekayo, amabanga okulinganisa I-Min/Max, ibanga lokulinganisa lihlukaniswe ngokulinganayo… kulula kakhulu, ukusiza abasebenzisi Akuthathi isikhathi esiningi ukubala.
  • Londoloza kufikela kumiphumela yokulinganisa engama-50isibali sikhathi sokulinganisa, idatha ezilungisayo ngomshini womsila wepuleti oguquguqukayo ukuze kukhawulwe amaphutha, inqamule ngokuzenzakalelayo ngemva kwesikhathi esingasebenzisi ukulondoloza ibhethri…
  • Umshini Ukulinganisa okusheshayo nokulula futhi umhloli angakwenza yedwa, onge isikhathi nomzamo, i-tripod ingafakwa ukukala amabanga engeziwe.

Isilinganiso esiqondile sobude, ibanga elivamile

Inkambu yokusetshenziswa

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Ngalezi zinzuzo ezingenhla, amamitha webanga le-laser manje asetshenziswa kabanzi emikhakheni eminingi, kufaka phakathi izinhlelo zokusebenza ezilandelayo ezidumile:

  • Yakha: inhlolovo, inhlolovo, ukugadwa kokwakhiwa, usayizi wokulinganisa, indawo, umthamo wephansi, usilingi, udonga, ukujula kokulinganisa kwenqwaba, …
  • Ingaphakathi nangaphandle: ukulinganisa ubukhulu, ukuhlola, ukuthola nokufaka ingaphakathi nangaphandle.
  • Ugesi namanzi: linganisa, bala inani lezintambo ezidingekayo namapayipi amanzi, bala indawo yokufaka amasokhethi, izinto zikagesi, izintambo, …
  • Izinkuni: ukukala ukuphakama komnyango, udonga, … ukuze ukwazi ukubala inani lezinkuni ezidingekayo.

I-Laser rangefinder manje isetshenziswa kabanzi emikhakheni eminingi

2Linganisa ibanga nge-hydrometer

Iyini i-hydro emaphakathi?

Ithangi lamanzi lisetshenziswa kala umehluko wobude phakathi kwamaphoyinti aphansi ngendlela ye-altimeter yejometri. Ukunemba kwekhamera kuncike kakhulu ekuzweleni kweshubhu lebhalansi ende kanye nokukhulisa ilensi.

Umshini wokulinganisa usetshenziselwa ukukala umehluko wobude phakathi kwamaphoyinti aphansi ngokuya ngendlela ye-altimeter yejometri

Izinhlobo ezidumile zemishini

Ama-Hydrometer ahlukaniswa ngokuya ngesimiso sokusebenza noma ngokuya ngokunemba.

Ngokusekelwe ku isimiso sokusebenza: ihlukaniswe yaba izinhlobo ezi-2

  • Umshini wethangi lamanzi ozenzakalelayo: Topcon, Nikon, Leica
  • Umshini wokulinganisa we-elekthronikhi, owaziwa nangokuthi umshini wokulinganisa we-laser: Leica sprinter 150M, Leica sprinter 250M,…

Umshini wokulinganisa ozenzakalelayo nowe-elekthronikhi

Isekelwe ukunemba: ihlukaniswe yaba izinhlobo ezi-3

  • Umshini wethangi lamanzi onemba ephansi: iphutha lokulinganisa elivaliwe 2.0 mm -2.5 mm/km njenge: Sokkia b40, Topcon at-b4 b40,…
  • Ukunemba okumaphakathi kwethangi lamanzi: iphutha ngenxa yokuvala 1.0mm -2.0 mm/km njenge: Nikon ae-7c, Leica na730,…
  • Umshini wethangi lamanzi onembayo ophezulu: iphutha lokulinganisa elivaliwe ngaphansi kuka-1.0mm/km njenge: Nikon as-2c, Topcon at-b2,…

Umshini wethangi lamanzi onemba ophansi, ophakathi nendawo kanye nophezulu

isici esiyinhloko

Lo mshini wazalelwa inhloso setha amanani okuphakama ngokomzimba, yenza imigqa yamakhontoyutha ukuze kunqunywe indawo noma bala umehluko wokuphakama phakathi kwezici ze-topographical, ikakhulukazi ngale ndlela elandelayo:

  • Isetshenziselwa ukudlulisa ukuphakama phakathi kwamaphoyinti angu-2 A, B

Isibonelo: Ukunquma umehluko wobude phakathi kuka-A no-B. Sidinga nje ukusebenzisa i-hydrometer kanye funda inombolo ye-mia endaweni A(a) kanye nesikhundla B(b). Bese uthatha ab=c, izothola umehluko omkhulu phakathi kuka-A,B; bese uthatha umehluko wokuphakama c kanye nokuphakama okungu-1 kwamaphoyinti angu-2sizothola ukuphakama kwephuzu elisele.

Isetshenziselwa ukudlulisa ukuphakama phakathi kwamaphoyinti angu-2 A, B

  • Nquma ukuphakama kwesikhundla

Indlela yokudlulisa i-pitch isetshenziselwa futhi inkinga yezibalo ze-geodetic idinga ukunemba okuphezulu njengokuqondisa umugqa wokulinganisa ukusuka kumaphuzu omsuka uye esisekelweni sesakhiwo noma osetshenziswe ku ukuqapha ukwehla… ingasho izinhlelo zokusebenza eziningi ku-geodesy sibonga le ndlela yokulinganisa okuphezulu, ebizwa I-altimeter yejometri.

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Ukusetshenziswa kokulinganisa kokuphakama ekuqaphelweni kokuhlala

  • Linganisa ibanga ukusuka emshinini ukuya ku-mia

Ngesistimu yokukhomba ngokunemba eqoshwe ngokunemba, singakwazi ukunquma ibanga ukusuka emshinini ukuya endaweni ye-mia ngokunemba kwamasentimitha. IHydrometer ikala ibanga nge igridi yochungechunge oluphambanayo.

Ngokwefomula d = (ab)100 (a ukufunda okuphezulu kuphela, u-b ukufunda phansi kuphela, u-100 ukuphindaphinda okungaguquki).

Linganisa ibanga ukusuka emshinini ukuya ku-mia

Umphumela walesi silinganiso se-engeli ngokuvamile uthathwa njenge Isiqondiso sokuqala sokuzulazula okulula kunesilinganisi. Ukunemba kwemiphumela yokulinganisa i-engeli nale divayisi ye-geodetic 30″.

Linganisa ama-engeli nge-hydrometer

Ethangini lamanzi, igeji ephezulu iyithuluzi elibalulekile uma ulisebenzisa. UMia yena uhlobo lwerula elisetshenziswa ukukala ubude bejometri, ku-mia kunemigqa eqoshiwe. Ubude be-mia ngokuvamile busuka 2-5m. Ukuhlukaniswa kwe-mia kuye ngokuthi ngokohlobo lomshini osetshenziswayo.

Inkambu yokusetshenziswa

Umshini wethangi lamanzi usetshenziswa kabanzi ku Ukwakhiwa kwegridi yokuphakama kwe geodetic, geodetic noma isetshenziswe ku ukudluliswa kwe-high-altitude. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ibuye isetshenziswe ekudluliseni indawo yokuphakama kwamaphoyinti, ukulinganisa ekwakhiweni, ukuqapha indawo yokuhlala okwakhiwa, ukulinganisa ekwakhiweni kwamafekthri, imigwaqo, neziqondiso zokuphakama zokulinganisa nokudweba amadolobha.

Imishini ye-hydraulic isetshenziswa ezindaweni ze-geodesy kanye ne-cadastral

3Ibanga lomshini wokulinganisa nge-theodolite

Theodolite uyini?

I-theodolite iyithuluzi elisetshenziswayo kala umhlabathi nama-engeli aqondile emkhathini, kuhlanganiswe iyunithi ye-optical-mechanical. Umshini ungakala i-engeli eyisicaba, i-engeli eqondile ngokuya ngokunemba okungenzeka finyelela umzuzwana (ekhoneni).

I-theodolite iyithuluzi elisetshenziselwa ukukala ama-engeli avundlile name mpo emkhathini

Izinhlobo ezidumile zemishini

Nge theodolite yanamuhla, bantu ihlukaniswe yaba izinhlobo ezi-2: I-optical theodolite ne-electronic theodolite

  • I-optical theodolite umshini ngokwemibandela yobuchwepheshe ngokuphelele izakhi zemishini kanye nezakhi zejometri. Imiphumela yokulinganisa evela ku-optical theodolite ikhonjiswa ngohlelo lwama-prism namalensi ukuze kusetshenziswe inani le-engeli elilinganisiwe endaweni yokubuka yeso.
  • I-electronic theodolite umshini kwavela ku-optical theodolite. Eqinisweni, i-theodolite ye-elekthronikhi isayenza imisebenzi ye-theodolite ye-optical-mechanical. Enye iwukuba nengxenye eyengeziwe kagesi evumela inombolo Funda imiphumela yokulinganisa eboniswe esikrinini se-LCD esikhundleni sokuthi uyifunde ngokuqondile.

I-optical theodolite kanye ne-electronic theodolite

isici esiyinhloko

  • Umsebenzi wesithombe: Uma ithatha isithombe, ikhamera yenza i-geotag, izithombe-skrini, amamuvi, namamuvi anesikrini esigcwele ngokuzenzakalela 2X kanye ne-4X . amakhono okusondeza kwedijithali.
  • Ukwenza imephu: ngikusize bona indawo yamanje kumephu. Futhi ungakwazi yabelana ngezimpawu zemephu nabanye abasebenzisi bohlelo lokusebenza nge-SMS/umbhalo kanye ne-imeyili.
  • Landela ithimba lami: vumela wena yabelana ngendawo nabantu abangu-20 kumephu ye-theodolite lakho.
  • Omunye umsebenzi: imodi yereferensi engu-angular, idatha yelogi, ifayela le-KML lokuthekelisa nge-imeyili. Isibonisi sibonisa izendlalelo zephesenti, i-optical rangefinder, nesihlungi silensi yombala ukuze kusetshenziswe kangcono ezimeni ezimnyama nokunakekelwa kokubona ebusuku.
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I-Theodolite inezici ezihlukahlukene

Izindawo zokufaka izicelo

Umshini usetshenziselwa ukukala ama-engeli nokukala amabanga nobude imisebenzi yokwakha, inhlolovo yensimu, ukudidiyela uhlelo lwenethiwekhi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, umshini usetshenziswa emsebenzini we-geodetic, ukulinganisa izinhlobo zezindawo ukuze kutholwe ubukhulu, ukuma kanye nokuma komsebenzi, izicelo zezimboni ezifana nezokwakha, ezomphakathi, amabhuloho Street,…

Isicelo se-theodolite sisasebenza kakhulu kufanelekile imisebenzi yezemidlalo yangaphandleukuhamba ngezinyawo, ukuhamba ngesikebhe, ukuzingela, igalofu, ukubona indawo, ukuthwebula izithombe nokuzulazula.

I izazi zokwakheka komhlaba, abaklami bezakhiwo, onjiniyela, abasebenzi bezempi, abadlali bezemidlalo abaqhudelanayo, kanye nabasebenzi bokusesha kanye nokuhlenga izinto zisebenzisa i-theodolite.

Isicelo emisebenzini yokwakha, inhlolovo yasensimini, ukuxhumanisa uhlelo lwenethiwekhi

4Linganisa ibanga ngesiteshi esiphelele

Siyini isiteshi esiphelele?

Isiteshi esiphelele siyidivayisi ye-opto-electronic esetshenziswa ngezindlela eziningi ucwaningo kanye nemisebenzi yokwakha. Isamba somshini wesiteshi iyinhlangano ye-electronic theodolite ehlanganisiwe nge-electronic distance measurement (EDM), ukufunda ibanga phakathi kweziqongo ezimbili (iphoyinti elimile, nelinye iphuzu elizokalwa).

Isiteshi esiphelele siyidivayisi ye-opto-electronic enemisebenzi eminingi esetshenziselwa ukuhlola nokwakha

Izinhlobo ezidumile zemishini

Ngokuya ngenjongo yokusetshenziswa kanye nesilinganiso samaphrojekthi ahlukene, singakhetha isiteshi esiphelele se-elekthronikhi esifanele. Njengamanje, emakethe amamodeli eziteshi ezidume kakhulu yiLeica, Trimble, Topcon, Sokkia, njll.

  • Isiteshi esiphelele seLeica: TS02 plus, TS06 plus, TS09 plus.
  • Electronic Total Station Topcon: GTS 250, 102N, ES

2 imigqa yesiteshi esiphelele edumile emakethe

isici esiyinhloko

Iqukethe izici ezi-2 eziyinhloko:

  • Linganisa futhi urekhode idatha : I-engeli eqondile, i-engeli evundlile nebanga lokutsheka
  • Bala: Ibanga elivundlile, ibanga eliqondile, i-azimuth yomugqa, izixhumanisi zamaphoyinti, ukusetshenziswa kanye nesakhiwo sephoyinti.

Linganisa, rekhoda idatha futhi ubale

Izindawo zokufaka izicelo

  • Le divayisi isetshenziswa ku ukuhlolwa kwe-cadastral, ukuhlola isimo sendawo, ekwakhiweni komphakathi njengezakhiwo eziphakeme, amabhuloho nemigwaqo.
  • Linganisa futhi udwebe amamephu e-topographic bese uthekelisa kumafomethi wefayela ledatha njengamafayela e-CAD ukuze aphathwe kalula kuma-electronic computer systems
  • Imishini ivame ukusetshenziswa emisebenzini yokwakha namuhla njenge ukuhlelwa kwephuzu (guqula izixhumanisi zephoyinti ukusuka kumklamo uye endaweni)

Le divayisi isetshenziswa ekuhloleni kwe-cadastral, ukuhlola isimo sendawo kanye nokuhlola

Ngenhla ulwazi oluyisisekelo mayelana nemitha yebanga le-laser, izinga lamanzi, isiteshi esiphelele, i-theodolite. Sithemba ukuthi ngalesi sihloko uzothola ulwazi oluwusizo mayelana nale mishini.

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