Sushi là gì? Có tốt không? Những loại sushi tốt và không tốt cho sức khỏe | Muasalebang

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1. Yini i-sushi?

I-Sushi isidlo saseJapane esihlanganisa irayisi (exutshwe ne-awasesu uviniga oxutshwe), izithako zokudla kwasolwandle futhi ingahambisana nokhula lwasolwandle, ukhula lwasolwandle noma imifino.

Ngokuqondile:

  • Uhlobo lwerayisi olusetshenziselwa ukwenza i-sushi lubizwa ngokuthi i-sumeshi noma i-sushimeshi, futhi abantu baze basebenzise nelayisi elinsundu ukwenza i-sushi (efanele abantu abadlayo). Ngemuva kokuthi irayisi seliphekwe (hhayi ukuphekwa njengerayisi evamile) lizofakwa ebhodweni lezinkuni (elibizwa ngokuthi i-tarai), bese lixutshwa noviniga. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngenkathi uhlanganisa irayisi, sebenzisa isiphephetha-moya sesandla ukuze uvumele ukushisa kuphume, ukuze ugcine ukunambitheka kweviniga.
  • Uviniga, obizwa nge-sushisu, awuwona uviniga ojwayelekile. Kuyingxube kaviniga ehlanganisa ushukela, usawoti kanye newayini elimnandi iMirin.
  • Isithako sokudla kwasolwandle, esibizwa nge-neta, sisebenzisa izinhlobo eziningi zokudla kwasolwandle njenge-salmon, tuna, izimfanzi, ama-squid, ingwane, ama-scallops, njll.

I-Sushi iqukethe irayisi (uviniga oxutshiwe) nokudla kwasolwandle, kuyilapho i-sashimi iqukethe ukudla kwasolwandle okuluhlaza kuphela.

Yini i-sushi?

Izinhlobo ze-sushi

Ngokuya ngendlela yokucubungula, kunezinhlobo eziyisi-6 eziyisisekelo ze-sushi kanje:

Uhlobo 1 (nigirizushi): ebizwa ngebhola le-sushi, lolu hlobo ludumile ovame ukukubona eVietnam. I-Sushi iqukethe irayisi elixutshwe noviniga nocezu lwezilwane zasolwandle kanye nesinaphi esincane (wasabi) phakathi. Ngezinye izikhathi kufakwe i-ginger egayiwe noma ama-scallions agayiwe.

Ibhola le-sushi (nigirizushi)

Uhlobo 2 (makizushi): ebizwa ngokuthi ama-sushi rolls, amise okwe-Vietnamese spring rolls enongqimba lwangaphandle lwe-nori seaweed. Ngaphakathi kunongqimba lwerayisi elixutshwe noviniga elinezithako eziningi ezifana nokudla kwasolwandle okusha, izaqathe, inyama yenyama, amaqanda athosiwe, inyama yenkomo, njll. Ngisho, abantu baphinde bagingqa ama-makizushi emaqandeni nasezimvithini zesinkwa ekuthoseni okujulile – lolu hlobo olubizwa nge-Tempura Makizushi. Umqulu ngamunye we-makizushi usikwa ube yizicucu ezincane ezingaba ngu-6-12 noma ngaphezulu.

Sushi roll (makizushi)

Uhlobo 3 (oshizushi): ebizwa ngokuthi ukugoqa kwe-sushi ngoba isongwe njengekhekhe eliyisikwele.

I-sushi epakishiwe (oshizushi)

Uhlobo 4 (narezushi): ebizwa ngokuthi i-sushi evutshiwe, ngoba iguga isikhathi esithile ukuze ivubele ngaphambi kokuyidla. Le flavour ivame ukuba nzima kakhulu ukuyidla, ngakho-ke ayidumile eVietnam.

I-sushi evutshiwe (narezushi)

Uhlobo 5 (inarizushi): ebizwa ngokuthi i-sushi ethosiwe, esongwe nge-aburaage, eKorea ebizwa ngokuthi i-Yubu chobap.

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I-sushi ethosiwe (inarizushi)

Uhlobo 6 (temaki): I-sushi isebenzisa ukhula lwasolwandle ukuze iginqike futhi igoqwe njengekhoni.

Ikhoni ye-sushi (temaki)

2. Izinzuzo zezempilo ze-sushi

I-Sushi ithathwa njengesidlo esinezinzuzo eziningi zezempilo ngenxa yokuthi ayilona irayisi kuphela, kodwa futhi iyajatshulelwa nezinye izithako ezinomsoco njengenhlanzi, izimila zasolwandle, ijinja, i-wasabi (isinaphi). … Njenge:

Ukondliwa kwezinhlanzi

Izinhlanzi eziningi ezisetshenziswa e-sushi zine-iodine, amaprotheni, namavithamini namaminerali adingwa umzimba. Ikakhulukazi, inhlanzi iwumthombo wemvelo kavithamini D, olungele amathambo, namafutha e-omega-3, abalulekile ekusebenzeni kobuchopho.

Ezinye izinto eziningana ezitholakala ezinhlanzini zinenzuzo ekugwemeni izifo, ezifana nesifo sohlangothi, isifo senhliziyo noma ukuwohloka komqondo, ukucindezeleka nokubona kubantu asebekhulile.

Umsoco ovela ezinhlanzini ze-sushi

Ukudla okunomsoco okuvela ku-wasabi

Ukudla i-sushi noma i-sashimi kubalulekile nge-wasabi (isinaphi), inokunambitheka okubabayo ukwandisa ukukhanga kwesitsha. I-Wasabi yenziwe ngamaseli e-stem e-Eutrema japonicum – lesi isitshalo somndeni weklabishi, i-horseradish.

I-Wasabi itholakale icebile kakhulu ku-beta carotene, isothiocyanates kanye ne-glucosinolates. Lezi zinhlanganisela zinezakhiwo eziphumelelayo zokulwa ne-antibacterial, anti-inflammatory kanye ne-anti-cancer.

Nokho, awukwazi ukudla i-wasabi ehlanzekile ngaso sonke isikhathi, ngenxa yokuthi izitshalo ze-wasabi ziyindlala, izindawo zokudlela eziningi zisebenzisa ezinye izithako esikhundleni salokho – njengokusebenzisa inhlama mbumbulu bese ziyixuba nempushana yesinaphi kanye noluhlaza oludayiwe. Yiqiniso, lolu hlobo ngeke lube luhle empilweni.

Ukudla okunomsoco kusuka ku-wasabi ye-sushi

Umsoco ovela olwandle

Kunezinhlobo eziningi zezimila zasolwandle futhi i-sushi ivame ukusetshenziswa i-nori yasolwandle. Lolu khula lwasolwandle lunothe ngemisoco efana ne-iodine, i-calcium, i-phosphorus, i-sodium, i-iron, i-thiamine, amavithamini A, C no-E. Ngisho ne-nori iqukethe amaprotheni afika ku-44% uma kuqhathaniswa nesisindo sawo esomile. uma kuqhathaniswa nokunye ukudla okunamaprotheni afana ubhontshisi wesoya.

Nokho, lapho udla i-sushi, ukusetshenziswa kwezimila zasolwandle cishe kuncane, ngakho umzimba ngeke umunce imisoco eminingi kulolu hlobo lokhula lwasolwandle.

Umsoco ovela olwandle lwe-sushi

I-Dinh ibonakala isuka ku-ginger efakwe emanzini anosawoti

I-Sushi inikezwa ijinja emnandi nemuncu efakwe emanzini anosawoti – ebizwa ngokuthi i-gari, enomthelela wokuhlanza ulwanga lwakho lapho ujabulela izingcezu ezihlukene ze-sushi.

Ujinja waziwa njengomthombo ocebile wamaminerali afana ne-potassium, ithusi, i-magnesium ne-manganese. Inezindawo ezilwa namagciwane, ithuthukisa inkumbulo, iqeda ubuhlungu bemisipha, isicanucanu, ubuhlungu bamalunga kanye ne-cholesterol embi ye-LDL emzimbeni.

Dinh kusuka ku-ginger ekhethiwe ye-sushi

3. Izinto okufanele uzikhumbule lapho udla i-sushi

Nakuba i-sushi inomsoco omuhle, akufanele udle kakhulu ngoba ingabangela izinkinga zempilo ezifana nalezi:

Amagciwane kanye nama-parasites

Izinhlanzi zingangenwa amagciwane ayingozi futhi zigcine amagciwane endaweni yazo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, uma ungalungiseleli futhi ucubungule lezi zinhlanzi ngokucophelela, lapho udla i-sushi, usengakwazi ukutheleleka ngamabhaktheriya nama-parasites ezinhlanzi.

Izibalo eziningi zezokwelapha zibonisa ukuthi: izinhlanzi nokunye ukudla kwasolwandle lapho wenza i-sushi kungakubeka engcupheni yokungenwa amagciwane kanye nezilokazane ezifana neSalmonella, Vibrio, bacteria.Anisakis kanye ne-parasite Diphyllobothrium.

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Okunye okumele sikuqaphele wukuthi ayikho imithetho yokuthi hlobo luni lwenhlanzi okumele lusetshenziswe ukwenza i-sushi, kuyindawo yokudlela ukuthi ikhethe ukudla kwasolwandle ezodayisela amakhasimende. Nokho, kunomthetho weFood and Drug Administration (FDA) wokuthi ezinye izinhlanzi kumelwe ziqandiswe ukuze zibulale izilokazane ngaphambi kokuba ziphakwe zingaphekiwe.

Nokho, inqubo yokulungisa nokucubungula izinhlanzi nezilwane zasolwandle ingangcoliswa. Ngakho-ke, kufanele ukhethe ukudla i-sushi ezindaweni zokudlela ezinedumela elihle nemvelaphi ecacile. Ungakhetha i-sushi ekudleni kwasolwandle okuphekiwe esikhundleni sokuluhlaza.

Amagciwane nama-parasites ku-sushi yezilwane zasolwandle

Ayanda amathuba okuba nesifo sikashukela nesifo senhliziyo

Ngenxa yokuthi i-sushi isebenzisa irayisi, inama-carbohydrate acolisisiwe. Uma umzimba uthatha ama-carbohydrate amaningi acwengekile, kuholela ekwandeni koshukela wegazi. Ngaleyo ndlela, kube nomthelela ekwandeni kwezimpawu zokuvuvukala kanye nengozi ekhulayo yesifo sikashukela,

Ngaphezu kwalokho, irayisi le-sushi liphinde lixutshwe noviniga (eliqukethe ushukela), ngakho-ke kubangela ukuthi ushukela wegazi kanye namazinga e-insulin anyuke, kuthinte impilo yenhliziyo.

Ngakho-ke, ungacabanga ukusebenzisa irayisi elinsundu esikhundleni selayisi elimhlophe ukwandisa okuqukethwe kwe-fiber nezinye izakhi. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, ukusetshenziswa kukaviniga kufanele kucatshangelwe nenani likashukela elisetshenziswa lapho lixubene nelayisi, elibuye libe nomthelela wokunciphisa ushukela wegazi, umfutho wegazi kanye namafutha egazi.

I-Sushi yandisa ingozi yesifo sikashukela nesifo senhliziyo

Iqukethe amaprotheni aphansi kanye nokuqukethwe kwamafutha amaningi

I-Sushi ivame ukuqukatha amanani amancane emifino nezinhlanzi kanye nezilwane zasolwandle, kodwa ngokuvamile ifika nesoso noma isiphuzo esinamafutha amaningi. Lokhu kwenze i-sushi yantula amaprotheni kanye ne-fiber, okungenzeka ibe namakholori amaningi kodwa kungenzeki ukuthi ikwenze uzizwe ugcwele isikhathi eside.

Ngakho-ke, ungacabanga ngokuba ne-sushi enesobho le-miso, isaladi ye-wakame noma enye i-sashimi.

I-Sushi inamaprotheni amancane futhi inamafutha amaningi

Iqukethe usawoti omningi

Wake wacabanga ukuthi i-sushi iqukethe usawoti omningi ngempela? Yebo, ukudla kwe-sushi kwenza umzimba uthole usawoti omningi ungaqondile:

  • Ilayisi nalo liphekwa ngosawoti.
  • Ukudla kwasolwandle okufana nenhlanzi ebhenywayo nemifino efakwe emanzini anosawoti nakho kunosawoti.
  • Ukudla i-sushi nge-soy sauce, equkethe usawoti omningi.
  • Kungenzeka ukuphakela i-sushi nezinye izitsha ezifana nesobho le-miso kakhulu – isobho liqukethe nosawoti.

Ukudla usawoti omningi ekudleni kuzokwandisa ingozi yomdlavuza wesisu kanye nomfutho wegazi ophakeme.

Ngakho-ke, unganciphisa usawoti wakho lapho udla i-sushi ngokunciphisa ukusetshenziswa kwe-soy sauce, ukukhetha i-salmon, i-mackerel noma ngenxa yokuthi inhlanzi iyabhenywa.

I-Sushi iqukethe usawoti omningi

I-Mercury kanye Nezinto Ezinobuthi

Indawo okuhlala kuyo ukudla kwasolwandle, ikakhulukazi izinhlanzi, kungenzeka ingcoliswe ubuthi, kuhlanganise ne-mercury. Ikakhulukazi izinhlanzi ezidla ezinye ezifana ne-swordfish, tuna, ushaka, i-sailfish, ne-mackerel ngokuvamile ziqukethe amazinga aphezulu e-mercury.

Ukudla kwasolwandle okune-mercury encane kuhlanganisa i-salmon, i-eel, inkalankala, ingwane nama-urchins olwandle.

Kutholakale ukuthi ezinye izinto ezinobuthi zitholakala ezinhlanzini, ezingaholela ku-ciguatera noma ushevu we-scombroid. Isibonelo, i-grouper, i-snapper, ne-sea bass inamandla okubangela ubuthi be-ciguatera. I-tuna kanye ne-mackerel kungenzeka ukuthi ibangele ubuthi be-scombroid.

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I-Sushi ingase ibe ne-mercury nezinye izinto eziyingozi

4. I-sushi enempilo

Salmon sushi

Ngenxa yokuqukethwe okubalulekile kwe-omega-3 fatty acids, i-salmon sushi ibhekwa kakhulu ngokwezempilo. Ukusebenzisa le sushi, udinga ukunaka izithako ezihambisanayo namasoso wokucwilisa ukuze ugweme ukwengeza ama-calories namafutha angafuneki.

Ukwatapheya sushi

Ukotapheya ugcwele i-fiber, amafutha anempilo enempilo, nezinye izakhamzimba ezilungele izinso nezinzwa. Mhlawumbe ngenxa yalokhu, ukwatapheya usuyisithako esithandwayo kuma-sushi rolls uma uhlanganiswa nezinhlanzi nemifino noma ukhula lwasolwandle.

I-sushi yemifino

I-sushi yemifino yenziwa ngezithako ezintsha zemifino eluhlaza njengekhukhamba, amakhowe, u-anyanisi, isanqante, isilimo esinengono emnandi edliwayo, ukwatapheya, tofu, njll., esikhundleni sokudla kwasolwandle. Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-ginger efakwe emanzini anosawoti nayo iyi-condiment ethandwayo ehlinzekwa nge-sushi.

I-sushi roll yesitayela saseCalifornia

Uhlobo lwesushi olugoqwe lubheke phansi, ilayisi lingaphandle kanye nezinye izithako kanti ukhula lwasolwandle lungaphakathi. Ezinye izithako ezisetshenziswa e-California-style sushi rolls zihlanganisa ukhukhamba, ukwatapheya, nezinti ze-crab.

Amaroli e-sushi aseCalifornia anempilo ngempela uma ungawasebenzisi namasoso noma amasoso anamakhalori amaningi namafutha afana nemayonnaise.

I-sushi enempilo

5. Izinhlobo ezingenampilo ze-sushi

I-Sushi Philadelphia

Lolu hlobo lwe-sushi luwukuhluka kwaseNtshonalanga kusuka ku-sushi yendabuko yaseJapane. Mhlawumbe yingakho igcwele ukhilimu ushizi, kuhlanganiswe nezinye izithako ezinempilo (njenge-avocado, i-salmon, njll.). Ngenxa yokuba khona kukashizi okhilimu, lesi sidlo se-sushi siqukethe amafutha amaningi agcwele akhuphula i-cholesterol emzimbeni.

I-sailfish/sailfish sushi (marlin)

Naphezu kokuba isithako esimnandi sokwenza i-sashimi, i-sushi kanye nesaladi yenhlanzi eluhlaza amaJapane avame ukuyenza, i-sailfish / sailfish ifakwe ohlwini yi-FDA njengenhlanzi okufanele igwenywe ezinganeni nakwabesifazane. ukukhulelwa, ukuncelisa. Ngoba okuqukethwe kwe-mercury okuqukethwe ku-sailfish kungabangela ubuthi, kuphazamise impilo yabasebenzisi.

I-sushi ye-Swordfish

Inyama ye-Swordfish iqinile kakhulu futhi yenza isithako esimnandi sokwenza i-sushi. Kodwa-ke, i-FDA ifake i-swordfish ohlwini lwezilwane zasolwandle okufanele zigwenywe ezifundweni ezibucayi njengezingane ezincane nabesifazane abahlela ukukhulelwa, abakhulelwe nabancelisayo, ngoba iqukethe amazinga aphezulu e-mercury.

I-sushi yoshaka

Ushaka, njenge-swordfish ne-tuna, nabo basohlwini oluzocatshangelwa okuqukethwe kwabo kwe-mercury ephezulu.

I-tuna sushi

I-tuna icebile ngokungenakuphikwa ngama-omega-3 anempilo futhi iyisithako esidumile se-sushi. Kodwa-ke, izinhlobo ezithile ze-tuna ziqukethe inani elikhulu le-mercury, njenge-bibeye tuna, okuba ukukhathazeka lapho kudla i-tuna sushi.

Izinhlobo ezingenampilo ze-sushi

Ngamafuphi, i-sushi iwukudla okumnandi, okugcwele amavithamini, amaminerali, kanye nenani lezinhlanganisela ezinempilo.

Kodwa-ke, akufanele udle kakhulu futhi ugweme ukusebenzisa i-sushi njalo, kuhlanganise ne-sushi enhle nengenampilo (eshiwo ngenhla). Ngoba i-sushi eyisisekelo isagcwele ama-carbohydrate acwengiwe, usawoti, namafutha angenampilo.

6. Isiphetho

Kufanele udle i-sushi ngendlela ehleliwe ukuze uqinisekise impilo, unciphise ngisho nezingozi ezingase zibe khona ongavamile ukuzibona. Njenge:

  • Ukukhetha irayisi elinsundu esikhundleni selayisi elimhlophe ukwenza i-sushi, kusiza ukwandisa umsoco womzimba ngenxa yezithako eziqukethwe zerayisi elinsundu.
  • Ungakhetha i-cone sushi esikhundleni se-sushi egoqiwe, njengoba iqukethe irayisi elincane okusho ukuthi ama-carbs amancane.
  • Ukumatanisa i-sushi nezinye izitsha, njengesobho le-miso, i-sashimi noma isaladi ye-wakame, kusiza ekwandiseni ifayibha kanye nokuqukethwe kwamaprotheni ekudleni.
  • Engeza ezinye izithako zemifino ku-sushi.
  • Yehlisa noma gwema ukusebenzisa i-sushi ngesoso yesoya, yehlisa ukumuncwa kukasawoti emzimbeni.
  • Gwema ukukhetha amaroli e-sushi anezithako zikashizi kakhilimu, noma unikezwe namasoso amnandi nanamafutha.

Ngolwazi olungenhla, i-Dien May XANH inethemba lokukusiza uqonde kangcono ukuthi iyini i-sushi? Ingabe kuhle? Hlobo luni lwe-sushi oluhle futhi olungalungile empilweni.

*Ukuhlanganisa kanye nolwazi olukhomba emithonjeni eminingi efana ne: Wikipedia kanye ne-Heathline.

Kuhlelwe nguNguyen Loan Minh Trang • Kuthunyelwe ngo-Okthoba 30, 2020

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